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10 Health Benefits of Ginger

One of the natural herbs that I hold in high esteem is ginger. Ginger is a flowering plant whose root is widely used as a spice and as herbal medicine.  The unique fragrance and flavor of ginger come from its natural oils, the most important of which is gingerol.

Below are the 10 health benefits of ginger that GetWellNews wants you to take note of:

  1. Ginger is Used for Pain Management

Ginger is one of the best herbs for managing body pain and general inflammation in the body. Research suggests that ginger can help relieve certain pains that come with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Every time I have muscle aches, ginger is my first point of call as it provides an effective relief devoid of side effects. I find fresh ginger juice more effective than the powdered in the management of body pain.

2. Ginger Treats Menstrual Pain

Research has shown that ginger is as effective for reducing the severity of menstrual cramps as the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and without the harmful side effects. It works by blocking certain substances in your body that promote inflammation and pain.

3. Ginger helps Fight Diabetes by Reducing Blood Sugar

Research in this area is relatively new but in a recent study, 2 grams of ginger powder taken per day by a group of 41 participants resulted in lowered fasting blood sugar by 12%.

4. Ginger is a Cancer Fighter

One other good news in the use of ginger is its cancer fighting properties. Ginger has been considered ten thousand times more effective than chemotherapy for treatment of cancer and without the side effects. It is an anti-oxidant and a natural cancer The active compounds gingerol and shogaol help in cancer cell death especially against the gastrointestinal tract. Ginger’s anti-oxidant property also makes it effective for the prevention of cancer.

5. Ginger Helps Fight Infections

Gingerol, contained in fresh ginger, can help lower the risk of infections. Ginger has even been known to help hinder the growth of many different types of bacteria. It is very effective against the oral bacteria linked to inflammatory diseases in the gums, such as gingivitis and periodontitis. Fresh ginger may also be effective against the RSV virus, a common cause of respiratory infections.

6. Ginger Helps Treat Gastro-Intestinal Problems

Research has linked multiple digestive benefits to ginger, specifically acting on parts of your Gastro-Intestinal tract responsible for feelings of nausea, stomach upset, and vomiting. Ginger has been shown to speed up emptying of the stomach in people with chronic indigestion.

7. Ginger Helps Treat Nausea or Morning Sickness

Morning sickness is nausea and vomiting that occurs during pregnancy. And, despite being called morning sickness, it can strike at any time of the day or night. Ginger has been used in traditional herbal medicine to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting presented by Morning Sickness.

8. Ginger Helps Boost Immunity

Ginger contains strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that makes it effective for boosting immune.

9. Ginger Helps Boost Cognitive Function

Ginger is believed to improve memory. Moreover, it has been used in traditional medicine to improve cognitive  Ginger is known to protect against Alzheimer’s disease which is mainly prevalent in the elderlies.

According to Mayo Clinic, “Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive disorder that causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and die. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disrupts a person’s ability to function independently”.

10. Ginger May Help Protect The Liver

In a recent study of 60 people with tuberculosis, Ginger (500 mg/day) helped protect the liver from the toxicity of antituberculosis drugs. In another experiment, Ginger helped slow down aging-related liver damage in old rats. It may protect from the harmful effects of heavy metals and drugs on the liver. It protected both the liver and kidneys of poisoned rabbits against cadmium toxicity and from aluminum toxicity in rats. It also prevented liver damage and scarring from painkillers such as piroxicam in rats.

You don’t want to miss any of these numerous health benefits of ginger. It is time to stock your home with fresh ginger. Add it to your soups, stews and smoothies to enjoy the many health benefits. The powdered ginger can be stored and used over a long period of time.

11 Health benefits of regular exercise

Many people jog around in the streets or hit the gym regularly to improve cardiovascular health, build muscle or just do what they presume is good for their bodies, but the benefits of regular exercise go beyond all of these.

Become inspired to exercise by reading up on these surprising ways that physical exercise can benefit your physical and mental health and generally lead to a healthier and happier life.

1. Exercise helps cardiovascular health

The three most obvious ways that regular physical exercise positively impact our cardiovascular system are in lowering blood pressure, improving better blood circulation and in reducing bad cholesterol in the body. Regular exercise can help prevent and reverse heart problems. Consult your doctor to prescribe the most suitable exercise if you have a heart condition.

2. Exercise reverses stress

Stress seems inevitable as we journey through life. Physical exercise helps reverse the harmful effect of stress and almost magically removes the accompanying symptoms. Exercise can help relax muscles and eradicate body pain acquired through stress. From migraines to depression, stress can be a terror on your body. Regular exercise will help reverse the symptoms and improve your mood.

3. Exercise helps your mood

Something as simple as a brisk walk around the neighborhood can restore a better mood and improve your state of mind. Exercise releases chemicals in your brain that can immediately dissolve those bad thoughts. And you can increase the benefits by making exercise a part of your daily routine. Whatever form of exercise you choose to engage in, regular exercise will make you a happier every day.

4. Exercise helps you sleep

Have you ever noticed how kids sleep faster and deeper after a long day play with their friends? When you put your body in motion and exercise for a long enough time, you will enjoy a better, faster and deeper sleep.

5. Exercise helps your sex life

Regular exercise will help you feel fit and have more energy. Regular physical activity can lead to enhanced arousal for women. Also, men who exercise regularly are less likely to develop erectile dysfunction than men who don’t. So, get into a daily exercise routine to magically “light up” the bedroom.

6. Exercise helps you eat right

Research has revealed that exercise helps people unconsciously crave for healthy and nutritious foods. This happens because your body needs certain nutrients to perform at its peak. You will naturally find yourself staying away from fatty, greasy and sugary foods that lack nutritional value. Working out help regulate your body’s natural demand and helps you make healthy food choice.

7. You become smarter and younger

Researches reveals that aerobic exercise keeps cognitive function in top shape and decreases the declining of memory and processing speed associated with aging. You can improve your brain power and repel the effects of aging just by exercising regularly!

8. Exercise helps control addictions

We become addicted to certain things and habits because of the feel-good chemicals released into our brain while engaging in them. Exercise, especially distance running, releases many of the same chemicals that are released with addiction. Running literally gives you euphoria, and that helps kick off those addictions by offering a similar payoff without the side effects.

9. Exercise reduces aches and pains

Physical activity is good for your bones, muscles and joints. It helps reduce stiffness in your muscles. It helps strengthen your bones and like a lubricant, oils your joints. Aches and pains of years of inactivity can melt away with a regular exercise plan.

10. Exercise keeps you motivated

When you create good habits and see results, you find yourself getting motivated in other areas of your life. You will also feel great and have self-confidence, thus becoming more motivated to do more than ever.

11. Exercise is fun

And lastly, exercise is fun. It will become easier, allowing you to push your limits and accomplish things you would never have imagined.

No matter what your activity level or current physical condition is, a regular exercise plan can help you get fit and improve many aspects of your life. So, it’s time to take a walk, join a gym, jog around in your neighborhood, play your favorite sport, or just do some stretching in your living room. You will enjoy these benefits and more as you stay consistent at this!

What are the health benefits of zinc?


Zinc is a trace element that is useful for a strong immune system. A deficiency of zinc can make someone more susceptible to disease, infections and illness.

The element is naturally found in many different foods, but it is also available as supplements.

Zinc is an important aspect of nutrition. You can be deficient of Zinc if there is not a high enough consumption from your food or supplement.

Deficiency in children can lead to growth impediments and increased risk of infection. During pregnancy and lactation, women may need more zinc.

Zinc helps create new DNA, promotes healthy growth during childhood, and help the body heal from wounds.

Below are some of the health benefits of zinc:

1) Zinc helps regulate immune function

Zinc shortage can brutally weaken the body’s immune system function.

A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition says, “zinc-deficient persons experience increased susceptibility to a variety of pathogens.”

2) Zinc helps in wound healing

Zinc helps in maintaining skin integrity and structure. Patients experiencing chronic wounds often have deficient zinc metabolism and lower blood zinc levels. Zinc is often used in creams for treating diaper rash or other skin irritations in children.

A Swedish study concluded that, “topical zinc may stimulate leg ulcer healing by enhancing re-epithelialization, decreasing swelling or tenderness and stop bacterial growth.

3) Zinc and fertility

Several Studies have linked low zinc blood level with low sperm quality and male infertility. For example, it was found that patients had a higher sperm count after zinc sulfate and folic acid supplementation.

4) Zinc for treating diarrhea in children

The World Health Organization, says diarrhea kills about 1.6 million children under 5 every year. A 10-day course of zinc tablets is effective at treating diarrhea and also helps prevent future occurrences of the condition.

5) Zinc helps in learning and memory

Research has shown that zinc has a crucial role in regulating how neurons interconnect with one another, affecting how memories are formed and how we learn.

6) Zinc helps treat the common cold

Zinc (lozenges or syrup) is useful in reducing the extent and severity of the common cold or flu in healthy people, when taken within 24 hours of onset of symptoms.

(7) Other possible benefits of zinc

Zinc may also be effective for the treatment of:

  • osteoporosis
  • preventing and treating pneumonia
  • acne
  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Foods Containing Zinc

The best sources of zinc are animal meats, nuts, fish, beans, raw oysters, beef, crab, lobster, pork, rice, peas, yogurt, peanuts, whole grain cereals and dairy products.

Zinc is also added to some breakfast cereals and other fortified foods.

Zinc supplements are also available in the form of capsules and tablets which are available for purchase in many pharmacy stores.

However, It is better to obtain your daily zinc requirements from foods, and then use supplements as a backup if necessary.

Signs of zinc deficiency

Anyone deficient in Zinc may present with the following signs:

  • -loss of appetite
  • -anemia
  • -slow wound healing
  • -skin conditions such as acne or eczema
  • -abnormal taste and smell
  • -depressed growth
  • -diarrhea
  • -hair loss

Zinc deficiency during pregnancy may increase the chances of a difficult or prolonged birth.

How to Prepare Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) at Home


Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, due to diarrhea, vomiting, flu, fever and some certain medications (such as diuretics).

An appropriately measured Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) is poured into a cup of water and drunk as needed to restore lost fluid and become rehydrated. The recommended ORS we buy in the pharmacy contains modest amounts of electrolytes, specifically sodium, glucose and potassium. Having the right amount of fluids and minerals is important for the normal functioning of the body. Use of oral rehydration therapy has been estimated to decrease the risk of death from diarrhea by up to 93% for both children and adults.

How Serious is Dehydration?

Mild dehydration may present non-serious symptoms like thirst, yellow urine, moderate weakness etc. However, severe hydration is a medical emergency which can be fatal! Our body fights infections better when well hydrated. This is why people who have bacterial or viral infections are advised to drink enough water or better still ORS to recover faster.

How dehydrated are you?

You can sense how dehydrated you probably are by pinching or folding your skin between the pads of two fingers. If you pinch the skin on your arm, it should quickly return to its normal appearance once you let go. This is known as skin turgor.

If the skin appears to stick together under the surface, it is usually a sign that you are severely dehydrated.

In children, you can predict severe dehydration when no tear accompany crying, their diapers are dry for longer than usual or they feel sleepy or fatigued and sluggish.

How to prepare an Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) solution at home

If ORS packets are not available, make a DIY (Do It Yourself) oral rehydration solution at home using the following:

Recipe: ORS solution requires Sugar, Salt and Water


  1. Clean Water – 1 litre / 5 cupfuls (each cup about 200 ml.)
  2. Sugar – Six (6) teaspoons
  3. Salt – Half ½ teaspoon
  4. Stir the mixture till the sugar and salt dissolve.

Enjoy your home-made ORS solution. This home-made solution is adequate in most cases.

Direction for use:

Drink sips of the ORS (or give the solution to the dehydrated person) every 5 minutes until urination becomes normal. Adults and grown children should drink at least 3 quarts or litres of ORS a day until they are well. If you are vomiting, continue to drink the ORS. Your body will retain some of the fluids and electrolytes needed as you vomit. Remember to take sips of the liquids slowly.

Feed children slowly with teaspoons or tablespoons.

A cheap but effective way to cleanse your kidney


Our Workaholic Kidneys

As the years go by, our kidneys never stop doing its work of filtering the blood, eliminating salt, poison and all that are harmful to our body. However, Over time, residue of salt and other harmful things accumulate and our kidneys require cleansing.

Cleansing our kidney with parsley leaf

Main Ingredient: Parsley leaf (also known as scent leaf)

This process is affordable, easy and effective.

  1. First take a bunch of Parsley leaf also known as Scent leaves, ”Ewe Efinrin” in Yoruba language (Nchuanwu in Igbo language and Faski in Hausa Language) and wash well to clean.

  2. Then cut into small pieces and put in a saucepan and add 1 liter of clean water. Bring to boil for ten minutes and then allow to cool.

  3. Filter into a clean bottle and refrigerate.

Direction for use: Drink one cup a day and you will see your kidney thank you for this.

This has been recognized and approved as reflected on Kidney.org and many other authority online resource as one of the best natural ways to cleanse the kidneys.

7 Foods High in Potassium

Potassium is an important nutritional mineral that helps in creating a balance in your body’s pH and body fluids. It works in opposition to sodium to regulate blood pressure. It is also required for normal muscle growth and for the effective function of the brain and the nervous system. Medical scientists believe that an average adult should consume about 4,700 milligrams of potassium per day.

Your body’s potassium levels could be affected by certain conditions like diabetes, kidney disease, vomiting, fluctuating hormone levels, side effect of certain medications etc.

It is not advisable to take potassium supplements until your doctor approves it. Therefore, the best source to get your potassium is from the foods you eat. Listed below are the 7 best food sources of potassium:

1. Avocado

Avocado fruit is a popular fruit and is a good source of potassium and vitamin D. The fruit, leaves, and seeds are used in herbal medicine. Avocado contains a lot of nutrients and antioxidants, such as potassium, Omega 3, magnesium, folic acid, lutein and fiber. Avocado is also rich in Vitamin A, C, D, E, K and B Group vitamins too. It is also a god source of manganese, copper and iron.

2. Sweet Potato

Sweet potatoes are delicious and packed with vitamins and minerals. One medium-size baked sweet potato has more than 500 milligrams potassium, along with B vitamins, minerals and about 20,000 International Units of vitamin A. It also packs about 4 grams fiber but only 100 calories.

3. Banana

A study into the nutritional contents of bananas reveals that it contains 0.3 gm total fat, zero cholesterol, 1 mg salt, about 360 mg potassium, 2.6 gm dietary fiber, 12 gm sugar and 1.1 gm protein per 100 grams of Banana.

4. Watermelon

Watermelons may be mostly water but there is a modest amount of potassium in it. It contains 112mg of potassium per 100gm of watermelon. Watermelon is also a good source of lycopene, as well as vitamins A, C, and B6.

5. White Beans

White beans, like all dried legumes, are among the most protein-rich plant-based foods. What’s more, they are also a very good source of potassium and magnesium.

6. Coconut Water

Coconut water is literally the liquid inside coconuts. One cup (240 ml) of coconut water contains 600 mg of potassium. Other nutrients contained in coconut water are magnesium, calcium, sodium and manganese.

7. Spinach

Spinach is one of the most nutritious vegetables existing. One cup (156 grams) of spinach contains 540 mg of potassium. It also contains other nutrients like vitamin A, vitamin K, folate and magnesium.

A high potassium diet may help reduce blood pressure and water retention, protect against stroke and prevent osteoporosis and kidney stones. Therefore, with this list in your hands, you can plan your potassium consumption and prevent or treat conditions caused by the deficiency.

Factors that make people susceptible to COVID-19 Virus

Factors that make people susceptible to COVID-19 Virus.

Let us explore the factors that increase a person’s chances of contracting or having severe symptoms from Covid-19:

  1. Age:

Researches conducted in China confirmed that people over 60 are at the maximum risk of experiencing severe symptoms from Covid-19. Examples of symptoms defined as severe are trouble breathing, fever, confusion and other symptoms that require immediate medical attention.

This is why the Disease Control Units of different countries encourage people in this age group to be extra careful not to contract the disease.

  1. Other medical conditions

People with underlying medical conditions like diabetes, heart disease, cancer etc are more likely to have severe symptoms of Covid-19, than people with no underlying health conditions. These people are also more likely to easily contract the virus.

  1. Sex

Male folks have been seen to be more susceptible probably due to lifestyle issues.

  1. Gene

Certain genes have also been found to be more susceptible.

  1. Immune System

The duty of the immune system — a collection of body chemicals, structures and processes within the body — is to defend against disease or other possibly destructive foreign bodies.

Click to read our article on how to boost your immune system against COVID-19

  1. Previous Immunization

Research shows that Countries in which people were mandated to receive the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, one of the first vaccines used to combat tuberculosis, had fewer cases and deaths from Covid-19.

How to Boost your immune system against COVID-19

You might have heard that the potency of our immune system can determine how susceptible we are to a viral infection. COVID-19 as a viral infection is not an exception to this truth. Having a strong immune system can actually reduce your chances of contracting the COVID-19 infection or lessen the severity of your symptoms.

Though most people infected with the coronavirus—81%, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)—will experience few or mild symptoms, others may find themselves relying on a ventilator to breathe. This, according to various researches may be due to the strength of the victims’ immune system.

Listed below are research backed things people can do to improve their immune system.

Do these to strengthen your immune system:

  1. Get enough sleep: Science has linked sleep deprivation with all kinds of health complications, from weight gain to a weakened immune system. Infection-fighting soldiers known as antibodies and cells are reduced when you deprive yourself of sleep. But sleep shouldn’t be more than 10 hours in a day for an adult.
  2. Avoid Stress: Stress reduces the immune system’s ability to fight off antigens. That is why we are more susceptible to infections during a stressful period.
  3. Eat Right: Eating a diet with a lot of fruits and vegetables has been another advice given by medical experts for boosting our immune system.
  4. Supplement: Vitamin C: A doctor in the United States, gives his coronavirus patients high doses of vitamin C and he said it’s helping. Whether this is true or not we do know that Vitamin C is one of the vitamins sited at the center of the boost of our immune system. Zinc: Zinc is also important since it does play a critical role in cell function in your immune system. Vitamin E: Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant and has an ability to modulate host immune functions. Several researches suggest that vitamin E is an important nutrient for maintaining the immune system, especially in the aged.

Note: Talk to your doctor before taking any supplement in high dose, especially if you have another health condition.

  1. Exercise Regularly: Regular exercise has also been found to naturally boost our immune system.
  2. Take Garlic and Ginger: Similar to supplements, herbs like garlic and ginger have been known to help boost our immune system.
  3. Quit Smoking and reduce alcohol consumption
  4. Maintain a healthy weight

Health benefits of Taurine to the heart

Today, we are looking at the cardiovascular benefits of Taurine. Taurine is known to be an  amino acid. It was once said to be non-essential simply because our body can self produce it, therefore we may not need to take it as a supplement. Numerous studies have shown that this is not true and as a result, taurine has been reconsidered as an essential amino acid that is necessary for many of the processes that occur within our bodies.

Amino acids are derived from a protein diet. The body breaks protein down into numerous amino acids which are then used to rebuild our body’s proteins. But there’s more to amino acids than just rebuilding our structures. Amino acids are required for cell function, cell regeneration, for the formation of antibodies enhancing our immune system, for hormone production and for enzyme production.

People vulnerable to Tuarine deficiency

Taurine’s benefits are very widespread, but before we find out its benefits, it is important to know that a deficiency state of taurine is very likely in vegetarian and vegan diets, as well as in those suffering from cardiovascular problems and diabetics, as well as poor functioning of the liver and kidneys. Additionally, our ageing bodies simply do not manufacture sufficient taurine making supplementation vital.

The benefits of Taurine

Taurine is included in numerous popular energy drinks and many people think that taurine is the reason for the side effects, this is actually far from the truth. These energy drinks often contain high amounts of caffeine, in many instances as high as 300mg in a serving, which is equivalent to 4-5 cups of strong coffee. Side effects of such high doses of caffeine include nervousness, jitters, seizures and a racing heart.

Taurine can provide numerous benefits and listed below are some of the protective properties of taurine.

Weight loss and obesity – the consequence of obesity impacts nearly every area of our bodies. Our abdominal fat stores are known to cause inflammation, which can lead to cardiovascular concerns. Taurine has the ability to significantly help lower lipid levels within the bloodstream and improves the body’s ability to cope with excess glucose in the bloodstream. Lipid lowering may help to protect against cardiovascular concerns whilst glucose tolerance is significant because many obese people go on to develop diabetes.

Cardiovascular disease – the heart contains a high concentration of taurine and various studies indicate the benefits of supplementing taurine for a variety of heart concerns. In studies, taurine was found to increase the retention of potassium and magnesium in the heart muscle which are necessary for electrical stability and regular heart muscle contractions. Studies also suggest that patients with high blood pressure have lower than normal levels of taurine in the bloodstream. When taurine levels are lower than normal, a protein called ‘angiotensin’ is released that causes the elevation of blood pressure.

Cholesterol reduction – elevated cholesterol is a common feature of cardiovascular disease. Taurine is required for the production of a compound that causes more cholesterol to be excreted in bile. Taurine has also been shown to improve the ability to reduce low density lipoproteins (LDL) which is often referred to as ‘bad cholesterol’. In this way taurine may protect the body against the hardening of the arteries and cardiovascular disease.

Eye Protection – taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the retina and protects the eye from various toxins. Its levels also decline significantly with age. Age-related vision loss has many different causes, but high on the list of causal factors is oxidative stress on the light sensory cells in the retina. Taurine’s ability to remove damaging molecules in the eye may implicate its ability to protect the retina.

Tinnitus – generally damage to hearing occurs to the nerve cells that convert sound waves into electrical energy, which the brain becomes aware of. Like nearly all nerve cells, the hair cells within the ear depend upon the flow of calcium into and out of them. Taurine helps to control the flow of calcium into and out of the hearing cells in the ear. These properties may help to prevent progressive hearing loss and may also be invaluable in the control of tinnitus.

Liver Protection – the liver is the body’s master organ of detoxification filtering toxins and harmful chemicals from the bloodstream as they pass through. Studies indicate that taurine helps to protect the liver cells against oxidative damage thus ensuring that the liver cells efficiently remove harmful compounds. This is vital in both alcohol and non-alcohol fatty liver diseases both of which can lead to eventual liver failure.

Exercise – taurine helps muscles work harder, longer and safer. Taurine increases muscle contractility both within the heart and joints resulting in more powerful workouts. Taurine also helps to remove lactic acid build-up which means that you can carry on working out for longer than you would otherwise. Finally, taurine has the ability to clean up compounds that cause oxidative stress thereby protecting our body from damage through oxidation.

With all these multiple benefits, it is no wonder that taurine is often called the longevity nutrient. The Japanese population has the highest longevity and this is thought to be due to the amount of taurine rich-foods consumed such as meat and especially seafood. Numerous studies indicate that the average omnivorous diet (meat and vegetables) provides approximately 58 mg per day. Studies indicate a daily dose of 1500 mg to 3000 mg per day may offer health benefits that are almost impossible to achieve from diet alone.

As we age all our processes age with us including the manufacturing of taurine by our bodies. I am not advocating high doses of taurine such as those used in clinical studies, however I do feel that if any of the above concerns are applicable to you then it would be prudent to introduce Taurine into your supplemental regimen even on a one-a-day dosage. Currently, there are no known side effects or drug interactions, however taurine should be avoided by pregnant women and nursing mothers.

How to prevent Coronavirus Disease – COVID-19


Currently, there is no vaccine to prevent the coronavirus disease or COVID-19 as it is presently called.

You can however protect yourself and family members from it and also help prevent the spread of the virus to others if you do the following:


  1. Wash your hands regularly for 20 seconds, with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  2. Cover your nose and mouth with a disposable tissue or flexed elbow when you cough or sneeze.
  3. Avoid close contact, stay with a distance of at least 1 meter or 3 feet away from people, especially if they are unwell.
  4. Stay home and self-isolate from others in the household if you feel unwell


Do not: Touch your eyes, nose, or mouth until you have recently washed your hands with soap and water. In the absence of soap and water, an alcohol based hand sanitizer may be used. However, hand washing superceeds the use of Hand sanitizer. Make sure the front and back of your hands are thoroughly washed for atleast 20 seconds.

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